Alignment of M. Catesby’s Hortus Siccus Specimens with his Natural History

Amy Hackney Blackwell, Christopher W. Blackwell. Botanica Caroliniana: Collaborative Research in the Liberal Arts. Furman University Department of Classics. Revision Date: 10-06-2012. Contact: christopher.blackwell@furman.edu.

Introduction

Mark Catesby, artist and writer, was one of the first European scientists to study the plants and animals of the Carolinas. His travels through South Carolina between 1722 and 1725 were the basis of his magnum opus, the Natural History of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands. This publication, for which Catesby created both the text and the color plates, got him elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1733 and has ever since been a favorite of South Carolina natural history fans.

Catesby left behind a vast body of primary source material in the form of plant specimens that he collected in the Carolinas and sent to England, where they still reside in herbaria in London and Oxford. These specimens are beautiful in themselves, and also have tremendous scientific value as a historic record of plants growing in the region in the 1720s. We have photographed all of Catesby’s plant collections housed in the Sloane Herbarium in the Natural History Museum, London and posted them online under a Creative Commons license, so that for the first time Catesby’s dried specimens can be examined in great detail from anywhere.

On this page, we have displayed images of specimens from Mark Catesby’s Sloane Herbarium volumes (H.S. 212 and H.S. 232) with corresponding plates and text pages from his Natural History. Click on the images to zoom them. We have transcribed Catesby’s decriptions of plants from the Natural History and from his handwritten notes that accompany some specimens, and in a few places have added our own comments. For the most part we have remained silent and allowed Catesby’s specimens, paintings, and text to speak for themselves.

Catesby was both scientist and artist. He used his art to depict a new world of organisms, and with it won the hearts and minds of a vast audience stretching over centuries. Our photography and webpage show how Catesby’s work can continue to reach modern audiences through the use of new technologies.

All determinations of the herbarium specimens have been verified by Patrick D. McMillan, School of Agriculture, Forestry and the Environment, Clemson University. The images from Catesby’s Hortus Siccus have been automatically processed to correct perspective and maintain the relative proportions of images across the page. This process is the work of Ryan Baumann of the University of Kentucky’s Center for Visualization and Virtual Environments.

All content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/). Full- and reduced-resolution images are available for download here.

 

Aligned Images

( Each page image is linked to a dynamic view of the full-resolution image. )

H.S. 232 folio 32 Acer rubrum L. var. rubrum red maple
H.S. 232 folio 32 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS232_032_0629-corr
N.H. 1.62t
N.H. 1.62

Catesby’s comments: The Red Flow’ring Maple. These Trees grow to a considerable Height; but their Truncs are not often very large. In February, before the Leaves appear, the little red Blossoms open, and continue in Flower about three Weeks; and are then succeeded by the Keys, which are also red, and, with the Flowers, continue about six Weeks, adorning the Woods earlier than any other Forest-Trees in Carolina. They endure our English Climate as well as they do their native one; as appears by many large Ones in the Garden of Mr. Bacon at Hoxton.

H.S. 212 folio 14 Acer saccharinum L. silver maple
H.S. 212 folio 14 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_014_0498-corr
N.H. 1.62t
N.H. 1.62

Catesby’s comments: The Red Flow’ring Maple. These Trees grow to a considerable Height; but their Truncs are not often very large. In February, before the Leaves appear, the little red Blossoms open, and continue in Flower about three Weeks; and are then succeeded by the Keys, which are also red, and, with the Flowers, continue about six Weeks, adorning the Woods earlier than any other Forest-Trees in Carolina. They endure our English Climate as well as they do their native one; as appears by many large Ones in the Garden of Mr. Bacon at Hoxton.

Notes: Howard identifies this specimen as Acer rubrum, but the heavily dissected leaves are characteristic of Acer saccharinum. Weakley says this species is “rare and mostly introduced east of the Appalachians and south of VA,” but clearly this specimen was growing in Carolina around 1722.

Cross reference: H.S. 232 folio 32
H.S. 212 folio 16 Calycanthus floridus L. eastern sweetshrub
H.S. 212 folio 16 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_016_0494-corr
N.H. 1.46
N.H. 1.46

Catesby’s comments: Frutex corni foliis conjugatis; floribus instar Anemones stellatae, petalis crassis, rigidis, colore sordide rubente; cortice aromatico. This shrub usually grows about eight or ten Foot high. The Leaves are set opposite to each other. The Flowers resemble, in Form, those of the Star-Anemony, compos’d of many stiff Copper-colour’d Petals, enclosing a Tuft of short yellow Stamina. The Flowers are succeeded by a roundish Fruit flat at Top. The Bark is very aromatic, and as odoriferous as Cinnamon. These Trees grow in the remote and hilly Parts of Carolina, but no where amongst the Inhabitants.

Catesby’s handwritten comments: The blossom of this shrub is of a redish purple and of an unusual stiff substance. It is a beautiful and ??? plant. The bark is aromatick and may be perceived by bruising it. It’s fruit were of this shape [sketch] but they fell to the ground before ripe.

H.S. 212 folio 3 Carya tomentosa (Lamarck ex Poiret) Nuttall Mockernut Hickory
H.S. 212 folio 3 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_003_0509-corr
N.H. 1.38t
N.H. 1.38

Catesby’s comments: Nux Juglans alba Virginiensis. Park. Theat. 1414: The Hiccory Tree. This is usually a tall Tree, and often grows to a large Bulk, the Body being from two to three Feet Diameter. The Leaves are serrated, narrower and sharpter pointed than the Walnut, but in Manner of growing on foot-stalks, like it. The Nuts are inclosed in like manner with the Walnut, with an outer and inner Shell. In October, at which time they are ripe, the outer Shell opens and divides in Quarters, disclosing the Nut, the shell of which is thick, not easily broke but with a Hammer. The Kernel is sweet and well tasted, from which the Indians draw a wholesome and pleasant Oil, storing them up for their Winter-Provision. The Hogs and many wild Animals receive great Benefit from them. The Wood is course-grained; yet of much use for many things belonging to Agriculture. Of the Saplings or young Trees are made the best Hoops for Tobacco, Rice, and Tar-Barrels: And for the Fire no Wood in the Northern parts of America is in so much Request. The Bark is deeply furrowed.

H.S. 232 folio 97 Carya tomentosa (Lamarck ex Poiret) Nuttall mockernut hickory
H.S. 232 folio 97 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS232_097_0563-corr
N.H. 1.38t
N.H. 1.38

Catesby’s comments: Nux Juglans alba Virginiensis. Park. Theat. 1414: The Hiccory Tree. This is usually a tall Tree, and often grows to a large Bulk, the Body being from two to three Feet Diameter. The Leaves are serrated, narrower and sharpter pointed than the Walnut, but in Manner of growing on foot-stalks, like it. The Nuts are inclosed in like manner with the Walnut, with an outer and inner Shell. In October, at which time they are ripe, the outer Shell opens and divides in Quarters, disclosing the Nut, the shell of which is thick, not easily broke but with a Hammer. The Kernel is sweet and well tasted, from which the Indians draw a wholesome and pleasant Oil, storing them up for their Winter-Provision. The Hogs and many wild Animals receive great Benefit from them. The Wood is course-grained; yet of much use for many things belonging to Agriculture. Of the Saplings or young Trees are made the best Hoops for Tobacco, Rice, and Tar-Barrels: And for the Fire no Wood in the Northern parts of America is in so much Request. The Bark is deeply furrowed.

Notes: This specimen does not really end in a paired leaflet; it is a damaged leaf, and must have ended in three leaflets. We identified it as Carya tomentosa, illustrated on N.H. 1.38. Howard identified it as Juglans nigra, illustrated on N.H. 1.67, and included here for reference. See also H.S. 232 f. 94 below.

 
N.H. 1.67t
N.H. 1.67

Catesby’s comments: Nux Juglans nigra Virginiensis. Park. 1414. The Black Walnut. Most Parts of the Northern Continent of America abound with these Trees, particularly Virginia and Maryland, towards the Heads of the Rivers, where in low rich Land, they grow in great Plenty, and to a vast Size. The Leaves are much narrower and sharper pointed than those of our Walnut, and not so smooth. The Thickness of the inner Shell requires a Hammer to break it. The outer Shell is very thick and rough on the Outside. The Kernels are very oily and rank tasted; yet, when laid by some Months, are eat by Indians, Squirells, etc. It seems to have taken its Name from the Colour of the Wood, which approaches nearer to Black than any other Wood that affords so large Timber. Wherefore it is esteemed for making Cabinets, Tablets, etc.

Cross reference: H.S. 232 folio 94
H.S. 232 folio 94 Carya tomentosa (Lamarck ex Poiret) Nuttall mockernut hickory
H.S. 232 folio 94 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS232_094_0560-corr
N.H. 1.38t
N.H. 1.38

Catesby’s comments: Nux Juglans alba Virginiensis. Park. Theat. 1414: The Hiccory Tree. This is usually a tall Tree, and often grows to a large Bulk, the Body being from two to three Feet Diameter. The Leaves are serrated, narrower and sharpter pointed than the Walnut, but in Manner of growing on foot-stalks, like it. The Nuts are inclosed in like manner with the Walnut, with an outer and inner Shell. In October, at which time they are ripe, the outer Shell opens and divides in Quarters, disclosing the Nut, the shell of which is thick, not easily broke but with a Hammer. The Kernel is sweet and well tasted, from which the Indians draw a wholesome and pleasant Oil, storing them up for their Winter-Provision. The Hogs and many wild Animals receive great Benefit from them. The Wood is course-grained; yet of much use for many things belonging to Agriculture. Of the Saplings or young Trees are made the best Hoops for Tobacco, Rice, and Tar-Barrels: And for the Fire no Wood in the Northern parts of America is in so much Request. The Bark is deeply furrowed.

Notes: As with HS 232 f. 97, above, Howard determined this specimen to be Juglans nigra.

 
N.H. 1.67t
N.H. 1.67

Catesby’s comments: Nux Juglans nigra Virginiensis. Park. 1414. The Black Walnut. Most Parts of the Northern Continent of America abound with these Trees, particularly Virginia and Maryland, towards the Heads of the Rivers, where in low rich Land, they grow in great Plenty, and to a vast Size. The Leaves are much narrower and sharper pointed than those of our Walnut, and not so smooth. The Thickness of the inner Shell requires a Hammer to break it. The outer Shell is very thick and rough on the Outside. The Kernels are very oily and rank tasted; yet, when laid by some Months, are eat by Indians, Squirells, etc. It seems to have taken its Name from the Colour of the Wood, which approaches nearer to Black than any other Wood that affords so large Timber. Wherefore it is esteemed for making Cabinets, Tablets, etc.

H.S. 232 folio 36 Castanea pumila (L.) Mill chinkapin
H.S. 232 folio 36 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS232_036_0622-corr
N.H. 1.9t
N.H. 1.9

Catesby’s comments: The Chinkapin. It is a Shrub which seldom grows higher than sixteen feet, and usually not above eight or ten: the Body commony eight or ten inches thick, and irregular; the Bark rough and scaly; the Leaves are serrated, and grow alternately, of a dark green, their back-sides being of a greenish white: at the joints of the leaves shoot forth long spikes of whitish flowers, like those of the common Chesnut, which are succeeded by Nuts of a conick shape, and the size of a Hazel-nut; the Shell, which incloses the Kernel, is of the colour and consistence of that of a Chesnut, inclosed in a prickly burr, usually five or six hanging in a cluster. They are ripe in September. These Nuts are sweet, and more pleasant than the Chesnut; of great use to the Indians, who for their Winter’s provision lay them up in store.

H.S. 232 folio 51 Catalpa bignonioides Walter Southern catalpa
H.S. 232 folio 51 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS232_051_0606-corr
N.H. 1.49t
N.H. 1.49

Catesby’s comments: The Catalpa-Tree. This is usually a small Tree, seldom rising above 23 Foot in Height. The Bark smooth: The Wood soft and spongy; the Leaves shaped like those of the Lilax, but much larger, some being ten Inches over. In May it produces spreading Bunches of tubulous Flowers, like the common Fox-glove, white, only variegated with a few redish purple Spots and yellow Streaks on the Inside. The Cadix is of a Copper-Colour. These Flowers are succeeded by round Pods, about the Thickness of ones Finger, fourteen Inches in Length; which, when ripe, opens and displays its Seeds, which are winged, and lie over each other like the Scales of Fish. This Tree was unknown to the inhabitated Parts of Carolina, till I brought the Seeds from the remoter Parts of the Country. And tho’ the Inhabitants are little curious in Gardening, yet the uncommon Beauty of the Tree has induce’d them to propagate it; and tis become an Ornament to many of their Gardens, and probably will be the same to ours in England, it being as hardy as most of our American Plants; many of them now at Mr. Christopher Grays, at Fulham, having stoof out several Winters, and produced plentifully their beautiful Flowers, without any Protection, except the first Year.

Catesby’s handwritten comments on specimen: This Tree seems to be of the Syringa kind. It produces as Jason told large white bell flowers the seed I have sent contained in a long pod not unlike Cassia fistula.

Notes: Weakley places this plant’s native range south of Carolina: “S. GA, ne. FL, n. peninsular FL, and Panhandle FL west to s. MS (or LA?), on the Coastal Plain, early naturalized in a more widespread area, and now extending north to CT and MI.”

Cross reference: H.S. 212 folio 61
H.S. 212 folio 61 Catalpa bignonioides Walter southern catalpa
H.S. 212 folio 61 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_061_0444-corr
N.H. 1.49t
N.H. 1.49

Catesby’s comments: The Catalpa-Tree. This is usually a small Tree, seldom rising above 23 Foot in Height. The Bark smooth: The Wood soft and spongy; the Leaves shaped like those of the Lilax, but much larger, some being ten Inches over. In May it produces spreading Bunches of tubulous Flowers, like the common Fox-glove, white, only variegated with a few redish purple Spots and yellow Streaks on the Inside. The Cadix is of a Copper-Colour. These Flowers are succeeded by round Pods, about the Thickness of ones Finger, fourteen Inches in Length; which, when ripe, opens and displays its Seeds, which are winged, and lie over each other like the Scales of Fish. This Tree was unknown to the inhabitated Parts of Carolina, till I brought the Seeds from the remoter Parts of the Country. And tho’ the Inhabitants are little curious in Gardening, yet the uncommon Beauty of the Tree has induce’d them to propagate it; and tis become an Ornament to many of their Gardens, and probably will be the same to ours in England, it being as hardy as most of our American Plants; many of them now at Mr. Christopher Grays, at Fulham, having stoof out several Winters, and produced plentifully their beautiful Flowers, without any Protection, except the first Year.

Catesby’s handwritten comments on specimen: Catalpa called so by the Indians. The flower is white with a mixture of yellow and purple and resembles in shape and bigness that of Cumbulu in Hortus Malabaricus. The flowers hang in bunches after the manner of the horse chestnut which at a distance it resembles tho much more beautiful. The seeds are contained in pods of abt a foot long a few of which I sent last year but I suspect not good, there being very few to be had — This year they hang prodigiously full inclusters. They grow by River sides very remote from the Settlements in rich land.

Cross reference: H.S. 232 folio 51
H.S. 212 folio 50 Clethra tomentosa Lam. Downy Sweet-pepperbush
H.S. 212 folio 50 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_050_0469-corr
N.H. 1.66t
N.H. 1.66

Catesby’s comments: Alni folia Americana serrata, floribus pentapetalis albis, in spicam dispositis. Pluk. Phyt. Tab. 115. f. 1. This Shrub grows in moist Places, and sometimes in Water, from which it rises, with many slender Stems, to the Height of ten or fourteen Feet. The Leaves are somewhat rough, placed alternately, serrated, and in Shape not unlike Those of the White Thorn. In July there shoots from the Ends of the Branches, Spikes of white Flowers, four or five Inches long. Each Flower consists of five Petals and a Tuft of small Stamina. These Flowers are thick set on Footstalks a Quarter of an Inch long; and are succeeded by small oval pointed Capsula’s, containing many chaffy seeds. This Plant endures our Climate in the open Air, and flourishes at Mr. Christ. Gray’s in Fulham.

Cross reference: H.S. 232 folio 35
H.S. 232 folio 35 Clethra tomentosa Lamarck Downy Sweet-pepperbush, Downy White-alder
H.S. 232 folio 35 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS232_035_0620-corr
N.H. 1.66
N.H. 1.66

Catesby’s comments: Alni folia Americana serrata, floribus pentapetalis albis, in spicam dispositis. Pluk. Phyt. Tab. 115. f. 1. This Shrub grows in moist Places, and sometimes in Water, from which it rises, with many slender Stems, to the Height of ten or fourteen Feet. The Leaves are somewhat rough, placed alternately, serrated, and in Shape not unlike Those of the White Thorn. In July there shoots from the Ends of the Branches, Spikes of white Flowers, four or five Inches long. Each Flower consists of five Petals and a Tuft of small Stamina. These Flowers are thick set on Footstalks a Quarter of an Inch long; and are succeeded by small oval pointed Capsula’s, containing many chaffy seeds. This Plant endures our Climate in the open Air, and flourishes at Mr. Christ. Gray’s in Fulham.

Cross reference: H.S. 212 folio 50
H.S. 232 folio 104 Cocculus carolinus (L.) A.P. deCandolle Coralbeads, Carolina Moonseed, Snailseed, Red Moonseed
H.S. 232 folio 104 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS232_104_0557-corr
N.H. 1.51t
N.H. 1.51

Catesby’s comments: Smilax (forte) lenis, folio anguloso hederaceo. The Stalks of this Plant are slender, running up the Walls of old Houses, and twining about Posts and Trees. The Leaves resemble our common Ivy. I never saw it in Flower; but it bears red Berries, about the Bigness of small Peas, which grow in Clusters.

Cross reference: H.S. 232 folio 41
H.S. 232 folio 41 Cocculus carolinus (L.) A.P. deCandolle Coralbeads
H.S. 232 folio 41 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS232_041_0617-corr
N.H. 1.51
N.H. 1.51

Catesby’s comments: Smilax (forte) lenis, folio anguloso hederaceo. The Stalks of this Plant are slender, running up the Walls of old Houses, and twining about Posts and Trees. The Leaves resemble our common Ivy. I never saw it in Flower; but it bears red Berries, about the Bigness of small Peas, which grow in Clusters.

Cross reference: H.S. 232 folio 104
H.S. 212 folio 57 Commelina erecta L. dayflower
H.S. 212 folio 57 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_057_0437-corr
N.H. 2.62t
N.H. 2.62

Catesby’s comments: Pseudo-Phalangium ramosum. This Plant trails on the Ground. The Top of each Stalk terminates in a single hollow Leaf, which clasps almost close, and from its Footstalk arises short round Pedicles, supporting the Flowers, which consist of two blue Petals, standing erect on one Side, and one very small white Petal lying flat facing them, enclosed by a Calyx of three Leaves; they contain several yellow Stamina, and are succeeded by a Seed Vessel, containing three Seeds.

Cross reference: H.S. 212 folio 6
H.S. 212 folio 6 Commelina erecta L. whitemouth dayflower
H.S. 212 folio 6 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_006_0499-corr
N.H. 2.62t
N.H. 2.62

Catesby’s comments: Pseudo-Phalangium ramosum. This Plant trails on the Ground. The Top of each Stalk terminates in a single hollow Leaf, which clasps almost close, and from its Footstalk arises short round Pedicles, supporting the Flowers, which consist of two blue Petals, standing erect on one Side, and one very small white Petal lying flat facing them, enclosed by a Calyx of three Leaves; they contain several yellow Stamina, and are succeeded by a Seed Vessel, containing three Seeds.

Cross reference: H.S. 212 folio 57
H.S. 232 folio 89 Cornus florida L. flowering dogwood
H.S. 232 folio 89 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS232_089_0568-corr
N.H. 1.27t
N.H. 1.27

Catesby’s comments: Cornus mas Virginiana flosculis in corymbo digestis perianthio titrapetalo albo radiatim cinctis. Pluk. Almag. 120. The Dogwood Tree. This is a small Tree, the Trunc being seldom above eight or ten inches thick. The Leaves resemble our common Dogwood, but are fairer and larger, standing opposite to each other on foot-stalks of about an Inch long, from among which branch forth many Flowers in the fallowing manner. In the beginning of March the blossoms break forth; and though perfectly formed and wide open, are not so wide as a Six-pence; increasing gradually to the breadth of a Man’s hand, being not at their full bigness till about six Weeds after they began to open. Each Flower consists of four greenish white Leaves, every leav having a deep indenture at the end. From the bottom of the Flower rises a tuft of yellow Stamina; every one of which opens a-top into four small Leaves or Petals: The Wood is white, has a close grain, and very hard like that of Boxe. The Flowers are succeeded by clusters of Berries, having from two to six in a cluster, closely joyned and set on foot-stalks an inch long. These Berris are red, of an oval form, and of the size of large Haws, containing a hard stone. As the Flowers are a great Ornament to the Woods in Summer, so are the Berries in Winter, they remaining full on the Trees usually till the approach of Spring; and being very bitter are little coveted by Birds, except in time of Dearth. I have observed Mock-birds and other kinds of Thrushes to feed on them. In Virginia I found one of these Dogwood Trees with Flowers of a rose-colour, which was luckily blown down, and many of its Branches had taken Root, which I transplanted into a Garden. That with the white Flower Mr. Fairchild has in his Garden.

Cross reference: H.S. 212 folio 5
H.S. 212 folio 5 Cornus florida L. flowering dogwood
H.S. 212 folio 5 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_005_0503-corr
N.H. 1.27t
N.H. 1.27

Catesby’s comments: Cornus mas Virginiana flosculis in corymbo digestis perianthio titrapetalo albo radiatim cinctis. Pluk. Almag. 120. The Dogwood Tree. This is a small Tree, the Trunc being seldom above eight or ten inches thick. The Leaves resemble our common Dogwood, but are fairer and larger, standing opposite to each other on foot-stalks of about an Inch long, from among which branch forth many Flowers in the fallowing manner. In the beginning of March the blossoms break forth; and though perfectly formed and wide open, are not so wide as a Six-pence; increasing gradually to the breadth of a Man’s hand, being not at their full bigness till about six Weeds after they began to open. Each Flower consists of four greenish white Leaves, every leav having a deep indenture at the end. From the bottom of the Flower rises a tuft of yellow Stamina; every one of which opens a-top into four small Leaves or Petals: The Wood is white, has a close grain, and very hard like that of Boxe. The Flowers are succeeded by clusters of Berries, having from two to six in a cluster, closely joyned and set on foot-stalks an inch long. These Berris are red, of an oval form, and of the size of large Haws, containing a hard stone. As the Flowers are a great Ornament to the Woods in Summer, so are the Berries in Winter, they remaining full on the Trees usually till the approach of Spring; and being very bitter are little coveted by Birds, except in time of Dearth. I have observed Mock-birds and other kinds of Thrushes to feed on them. In Virginia I found one of these Dogwood Trees with Flowers of a rose-colour, which was luckily blown down, and many of its Branches had taken Root, which I transplanted into a Garden. That with the white Flower Mr. Fairchild has in his Garden.

Cross reference: H.S. 232 folio 89
H.S. 232 folio 122 Endodeca serpentaria (L.) Raf. Turpentine-root, Virginia Snakeroot
H.S. 232 folio 122 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS232_122_0536-corr
N.H. 1.29t
N.H. 1.29

Catesby’s comments: Aristolochia pistolochia seu Serpentaria Virginiana caul nodoso. Pluk. Alma. p. 50. Tab. 148. The Snake-Root of Virginia. This Plant rises out of the Ground in one, two, and sometimes three pliant Stalks, which at every little distance are crooked, or undulated. The Leaves stand alternately, and are about three inches long, in form somwhat like the Smilax aspera. The Flowers grow close to the ground on foot-stalks an inch long, of a singular shape, though somewhath resembling those of the Birthworts, of a dark purple colour. A round chanulated capsula succeeds the Flower, containing many small Seeds, which are ripe in May. The usual price of this excellent Root, both in Virginia and Carolina, is about six pence a pound when dryed, which is Money hardly earned. Yet the Negro Slaves (who only dig it) employ much of the little time allowed them by their Masters in search of it; which is the Cause of there being seldom found any but small Plants. By planting them in a Garden they increased so in two years time, that one’s hand could not grasp the stalks of one Plant. It delights in shady Woods, and is usually found at the Roots of great Trees.

H.S. 212 folio 11 Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. green ash
H.S. 212 folio 11 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_011_0500-corr
N.H. 1.80t
N.H. 1.80

Catesby’s comments: Fraxinus Carolinensis, foliis angustioribus utrinque acuminatis, pendulis. These Trees are commonly of a mean Size and Height. The Leaves are pointed at both Ends. The Seeds are winged, and hang in Clusters. They grow in low moist Places.

H.S. 212 folio 87 Gentiana catesbaei Walter coastal plain gentian
H.S. 212 folio 87 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_087_0417
N.H. 1.70t
N.H. 1.70

Catesby’s comments: Gentiana Virginiana, Saponariae folio, flore coeruleo longiore. Hist. Oxon. 3. 184. Ico. Tab. 5. Sect. 12. This Plant grows in Ditches and shady moist Places, rising usually sixteen Inches high, with upright strait Stems, having long sharp pointed Leaves, set opposite to each other, spreading horizontally. From the Joints of the Leaves come forth four or five monopetalous blue Flowers; which, before they open, are in Form of a Rolling-Pin; but, when blown, are in the Shape of a Cup, with the Verge divided into five Sections.

H.S. 212 folio 13 Gordonia lasianthus (L.) Ellis loblolly bay
H.S. 212 folio 13 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_013_0497-corr
N.H. 1.44t
N.H. 1.44

Catesby’s comments: Alcea Floridana quinque capsularis Laurinis foliis, leviter crenatis, feminbus coniferarum instar salatis, Pluk. Almath. p. 7. Tab. 352. The Loblolly Bay. This is a tall and very streight Tree, with a regular Piramidal shaped Head. Its Leaves are shaped like those of the common Bay, but serrated. It begins to blossom in May, and continues bringing forth its Flowers, the greatest part of the Summer. The Flowers are fixed to Foot-stalks, four or five Inches long; are monopetalous, divided into five Segments, encompassing a Tuft of Stamina, headed with yellow Apices; which Flowers in November are succeeded by a conic Capsula having a divided Calix. The Capsula when ripe opens and divides into five Sections, disclosing many small half-winged Seeds. This Tree retains its Leaves all the Year, and grows only in wet Places, and usually in Water. The Wood is somewhat soft; yet I have seen some beautiful Tables made of it. It grows in Carolina; but not in any of the more Northern Colonies.

Catesby’s handwritten comments on specimen: This is here vulgarly called Loblolly Bay. It is a full and very Erect Tree retaining it leaves the year round. June and July it produces infinite numbers of white flowers. It is certainly one of the most ornamental and proper Trees in nature for America.

H.S. 232 folio 50 Gordonia lasianthus (L.) Ellis Loblolly Bay
H.S. 232 folio 50 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS232_050_0605-corr
N.H. 1.44t
N.H. 1.44

Catesby’s comments: Alcea Floridana quinque capsularis Laurinis foliis, leviter crenatis, feminbus coniferarum instar salatis, Pluk. Almath. p. 7. Tab. 352. The Loblolly Bay. This is a tall and very streight Tree, with a regular Piramidal shaped Head. Its Leaves are shaped like those of the common Bay, but serrated. It begins to blossom in May, and continues bringing forth its Flowers, the greatest part of the Summer. The Flowers are fixed to Foot-stalks, four or five Inches long; are monopetalous, divided into five Segments, encompassing a Tuft of Stamina, headed with yellow Apices; which Flowers in November are succeeded by a conic Capsula having a divided Calix. The Capsula when ripe opens and divides into five Sections, disclosing many small half-winged Seeds. This Tree retains its Leaves all the Year, and grows only in wet Places, and usually in Water. The Wood is somewhat soft; yet I have seen some beautiful Tables made of it. It grows in Carolina; but not in any of the more Northern Colonies.

Cross reference: H.S. 212 folio 13
H.S. 212 folio 4 Hamamelis virginiana L. American witchhazel
H.S. 212 folio 4 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_004_0501-corr
N.H. 1.102t
N.H. 1.102

Catesby’s comments: Hamamelis. The usual height of these Plants is ten or twelve feet. They resemble nut-trees at a little distance; the leaves of which this likewise resembles, or rather those of the alder-tree. The flower is pale yellow, consisting of a triangular involucrum; a calix divided by four segments, from which proceed four slender petals, about two inches long. It has also four stamina, and a stilus hardly to be discerned with the naked eye. It flowers at Carolina in October, continuing long in blossom, then sets its fruit for the next summer. The seed-vessel consists of a double capsula, which when ripe splits half open, and discloses two hard black shining seeds, having a white spot at their bigger ends, each seed lying in its distinct cell, separated by a thin membrane. These seeds are sometimes tricapsular. For this Plant I am obliged to Mr. Clayton, who in the Year 1743 sent it me in a case of earth from Virginia. It arrived in Christmas, and was then in full blossom.

Sir, This is a new Genus of Plants, which I have likewise had an opportunity of describing from the live Plant, which I call Trilopus, on account of the triple husk of the fruit, so remarkable, but not described in its character. The inner Putamen of the nut is of a hard horny substance, double, inclosing each seed, opening at top, and divided by a valve of the middle husk, which is of a leathern substance, inclosing the whole nut, opening cross-wise at top. The outer husk resembles the cup of an acorn inclosing half the nut. The petals are as it were double at the base, a small petaliform Nectarium, of the length of the Perianthium, being affixed to the base of each petal. John Mitchell.

H.S. 212 folio 65 Ilex cassine x opaca
H.S. 212 folio 65 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_065_0441-corr
N.H. 1.31t
N.H. 1.31

Catesby’s comments: Agrifolium Carolinense foliis dentatis baccis rubris. The Dahoon Holly. This Holly usually grows erect, sixteen Feet high; the Branches shooting straighter, and being of quicker Growth than the common Kind. The Leaves are longer, of a brighter green, and more pliant; not prickly, but serrated only. The Berries are red, grwoing in large Clusters. This is a very uncommon Plant in Carolina, I having never seen it but at Col. Bull’s Plantation on Ashley River, where it grows in a Bog.

H.S. 232 folio 54 Kalmia latifolia L. mountain laurel
H.S. 232 folio 54 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS232_054_0603-corr
N.H. 2.98t
N.H. 2.98

Catesby’s comments: Chamaedaphne foliis Tini, floribus bullatis umbellatis. This ever green Shrub rises usually to the Height of five or six Feet, and sometimes twice that Height: The Stems of some are as big as the small of a Man’s Leg, though generally they are smaller, and covered with a rough brown Bark: The Wood is very close grained, heavy and hard, like Box: The Limbs in general are crooked and grow irregular, but are thick cloathed with stiff smooth Leaves, of a shining bright green, most of which are contracted, as in the figure: The Flowers grow in Bunches on the Tops of the Branches, to Foot-stalks of three Inches long; they are white, stain’d with purplish red; consisting of one Leaf in Form of a Cup, divided at the Verge into five Sections; in the Middle is a Stilus, and ten Stamina, which when the Flower first opens, appear lying close to the Sides of the Cup, at equal Distances; their Apices being lodged in ten little hollow Cells, which being prominent on the Outside, appear as so many little Tubercles; The Glowers are succeeded by small round Capsulas; which when ripe open in five Parts, and discharge its small Dust like Seeds. This Plant is a Native of Carolina, Virginia, and other Parts of the Northern Continent of America, yet are not common, but are found only in particular Places: They grow on Rocks, hanging over Rivulets, and running Streams, and on the Sides of barren Hills, in a Soil the most steril, and least productive of any I ever saw.

The noxious Qualities of this elegant Plant lessens that Esteem which its Beauty claims; for the Deer feed on its green Leaves with Impunity; yet when Cattle and Sheep, by severe Winters deprived of better Food, feed on the Leaves of these Plants, a great many of them die annually: They blossom in May, and continue in Flower a great Part of the Summer.

As all Plants have their peculiar Beauties, ’tis difficult to assign to any one an Elegance excelling all others, yet considering the curious Structure of the Flower, and beautiful Appearance of this whole Plant; I know of no Shrub that has a better Claim to it. After several unsuccessful Attempts to propagate it from Seeds, I procured Plants of it at several Times from America, but with little better Success, for they gradually diminished, and produced no Blossoms; ’till my curious Friend Mr. Peter Collinson, excited by a View of its dryed Specimens, and Description of it, procured some Plants of it from Pensilvania, which Climate being nearer to that of England, than from whence mine came, some Bunches of Blossoms were produced in July 1740, and in 1741, in my Garden at Fulham.

Catesby’s handwritten comments on specimen: This I take to be Dr. Pluckenets Cistus semper virens. I sent specimens in flower last like these are the seed which I never could find hard substance enough to grow.

Cross reference: H.S. 212 folio 64
H.S. 212 folio 64 Kalmia latifolia L. mountain laurel
H.S. 212 folio 64 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_064_0442-corr
N.H. 2.98t
N.H. 2.98

Catesby’s comments: Chamaedaphne foliis Tini, floribus bullatis umbellatis. This ever green Shrub rises usually to the Height of five or six Feet, and sometimes twice that Height: The Stems of some are as big as the small of a Man’s Leg, though generally they are smaller, and covered with a rough brown Bark: The Wood is very close grained, heavy and hard, like Box: The Limbs in general are crooked and grow irregular, but are thick cloathed with stiff smooth Leaves, of a shining bright green, most of which are contracted, as in the figure: The Flowers grow in Bunches on the Tops of the Branches, to Foot-stalks of three Inches long; they are white, stain’d with purplish red; consisting of one Leaf in Form of a Cup, divided at the Verge into five Sections; in the Middle is a Stilus, and ten Stamina, which when the Flower first opens, appear lying close to the Sides of the Cup, at equal Distances; their Apices being lodged in ten little hollow Cells, which being prominent on the Outside, appear as so many little Tubercles; The Glowers are succeeded by small round Capsulas; which when ripe open in five Parts, and discharge its small Dust like Seeds. This Plant is a Native of Carolina, Virginia, and other Parts of the Northern Continent of America, yet are not common, but are found only in particular Places: They grow on Rocks, hanging over Rivulets, and running Streams, and on the Sides of barren Hills, in a Soil the most steril, and least productive of any I ever saw.

The noxious Qualities of this elegant Plant lessens that Esteem which its Beauty claims; for the Deer feed on its green Leaves with Impunity; yet when Cattle and Sheep, by severe Winters deprived of better Food, feed on the Leaves of these Plants, a great many of them die annually: They blossom in May, and continue in Flower a great Part of the Summer.

As all Plants have their peculiar Beauties, ’tis difficult to assign to any one an Elegance excelling all others, yet considering the curious Structure of the Flower, and beautiful Appearance of this whole Plant; I know of no Shrub that has a better Claim to it. After several unsuccessful Attempts to propagate it from Seeds, I procured Plants of it at several Times from America, but with little better Success, for they gradually diminished, and produced no Blossoms; ’till my curious Friend Mr. Peter Collinson, excited by a View of its dryed Specimens, and Description of it, procured some Plants of it from Pensilvania, which Climate being nearer to that of England, than from whence mine came, some Bunches of Blossoms were produced in July 1740, and in 1741, in my Garden at Fulham.

Cross reference: H.S. 232 folio 54
H.S. 232 folio 68 Lilium catesbaei Walter Pine Lily, Catesby’s Lily, Leopard Lily
H.S. 232 folio 68 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS232_068_0589-corr
N.H. 2.58t
N.H. 2.58

Catesby’s comments: Lilium Carolinianum, flore croceo punctato, petalis longioribus & angustioribus. The Red Lilly. This Lilly grows from a single bulbous scaly Root about the size of a Walnut, rising with a single Stalk to the Height of about two Feet, to which from the Bottom on the Flower are set opposite to each other narrow Leaves. One Flower only is produced on the Top of the Stalk, consisting of six Petals, every of which have a Footstalk an Inch long; these Petals turn back in a graceful Manner and are tapering, temrinating in Points and edged with small Indentures; From the Bottom of the Flower rises six very long Stamina with their Apices, surrounding a Pistillum; the whole Flower is variously shaded with Red, Orange, and Lemmon Colours. They grow on open moist Savannas in many Parts of Carolina.

H.S. 232 folio 34 Liquidambar styraciflua L. sweetgum
H.S. 232 folio 34 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS232_034_0634-corr
N.H. 2.65t
N.H. 2.65

Catesby’s comments: Liquid-Ambari Arbor, seu Styraciflua, Aceris folio, fructu Tribuloide, i.e. Pericarpio orbivulari ex quam plurimis apicibus coagmentato, semen recondens. Plukenet. Almagest. Bot. pag. 224. Phytogr. Tab. 42. Fig. 6. The Sweet Gum-Tree. The Trunc of this Tree is commonly two Foot in Diameter, strait and free from Branches to the Height of about fifteen Feet; from which the Branches spread and rise in a Conic Form to the Height of Forty Feet and upward from the Ground. The Leaves are five-pointed, being divided into so many deep Sections, and are set on long slender Pedicles. In February, before the Leaves are forme, the Blossoms begin to break forth from the Tops of the Branches into Spikes of yellowish red, pappous, globular Flowers, which when the Apices are blown off by the Wind, swell gradually, retaining their round Form, to the full Maturity of their Seed Vessels, which are thick set with pointed hollow Protuberances, and spliting open discharge their Seeds, each Cell containing a Seed, winged at one End with many small Grains, distinct from the Seed.

The Wood is good Timber, and is used in Wainscoting, etc. The Grain is fine, and some of it beautifully variegated, and very fit for curious Works in Joinery, but when wrought too green, is apt to shrink and fly from its Joints, to prevent which no less than eight or ten Years is sufficient to season its Planks; yet the regular Form and Beauty of this Tree deserves the Regard of the Curious, non of the American Trees affecting more our Soil and Climate. From between the Wood and the Bark of this Tree issues a fragrant Gum, which trickles from the wounded Trees, and by the Heat of the Sun congeals into transparent resinous Drops, which the Indians chew, esteeming it a Preservative of their Teeth; the Bark is also of singular Use to them for covering their Houses, which has frequently given me an Opportunity of gathering the Gum from Trees so strip’d of their Bark, one of which would yield an Hat full of Gum. This Gum smells so like the Balsam of Tolu, that it is not easy to distinguish them.

Catesby’s handwritten comments on specimen: Styrax aceris folio of Dr. Pluckuet or Sweet Gum

Cross reference: H.S. 212 folio 79
H.S. 212 folio 79 Liquidambar styraciflua L. sweetgum
H.S. 212 folio 79 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_079_0432-corr
N.H. 2.65t
N.H. 2.65

Catesby’s comments: Liquid-Ambari Arbor, seu Styraciflua, Aceris folio, fructu Tribuloide, i.e. Pericarpio orbivulari ex quam plurimis apicibus coagmentato, semen recondens. Plukenet. Almagest. Bot. pag. 224. Phytogr. Tab. 42. Fig. 6. The Sweet Gum-Tree. The Trunc of this Tree is commonly two Foot in Diameter, strait and free from Branches to the Height of about fifteen Feet; from which the Branches spread and rise in a Conic Form to the Height of Forty Feet and upward from the Ground. The Leaves are five-pointed, being divided into so many deep Sections, and are set on long slender Pedicles. In February, before the Leaves are forme, the Blossoms begin to break forth from the Tops of the Branches into Spikes of yellowish red, pappous, globular Flowers, which when the Apices are blown off by the Wind, swell gradually, retaining their round Form, to the full Maturity of their Seed Vessels, which are thick set with pointed hollow Protuberances, and spliting open discharge their Seeds, each Cell containing a Seed, winged at one End with many small Grains, distinct from the Seed.

The Wood is good Timber, and is used in Wainscoting, etc. The Grain is fine, and some of it beautifully variegated, and very fit for curious Works in Joinery, but when wrought too green, is apt to shrink and fly from its Joints, to prevent which no less than eight or ten Years is sufficient to season its Planks; yet the regular Form and Beauty of this Tree deserves the Regard of the Curious, non of the American Trees affecting more our Soil and Climate. From between the Wood and the Bark of this Tree issues a fragrant Gum, which trickles from the wounded Trees, and by the Heat of the Sun congeals into transparent resinous Drops, which the Indians chew, esteeming it a Preservative of their Teeth; the Bark is also of singular Use to them for covering their Houses, which has frequently given me an Opportunity of gathering the Gum from Trees so strip’d of their Bark, one of which would yield an Hat full of Gum. This Gum smells so like the Balsam of Tolu, that it is not easy to distinguish them.

Cross reference: H.S. 232 folio 34
H.S. 212 folio 80 Liriodendron tulipifera L. tulip tree
H.S. 212 folio 80 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_080_0431-corr
N.H. 1.48t
N.H. 1.48

Catesby’s comments: Arbor Tulipifera Virginiana tripartito aceris folio, media lacinia velut abscissa. Pluk. Phytog. Tab. 117 & Tab. 248. This Tree grows to a very large Size; some of them being Thirty Foot in Circumference. Its Boughs are very unequal and irregular, not streight, but making several Bends or Elbows; which peculiarly makes this Tree distinghishable, at a great Distance, from all other Trees, even when it has lost its Leaves. The Leaves stands on Foot-stalks, about a Finger in Length; They somewhat resemble the smaller Maple in Shape, but are usually five or six Inches over, and instead of being pointed at the End, seem to be cut off with a Notch. The Flowers have been always compared to Tulips; whence the Tree has received its Name; tho’, I think, in Shape they resemble more the Fritillaria. They are composed of seven or eight Petala; the Upper-part being of a pale-green, and the Lower-part shaded with red and a little yellow intermix’d. They are at first enclosed by a Perianthium, which opens and falls back when the Flower blows. These Trees are found in most parts of the Northern Continent of America, from the Cape of Florida to New England. The Timber is of great Use.

H.S. 232 folio 52 Nyssa aquatica L. water tupelo
H.S. 232 folio 52 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS232_052_0604-corr
N.H. 1.60t
N.H. 1.60

Catesby’s comments: Arbor in aqua nascens, follis latis acuminatis & dentatis, fuctu Elagni majore. The Water-Tupelo. This Tree has a large Trunk, especially near the Ground, and grows very tall. The Leaves are broad, irregularly notched or indented. From the Sides of the Branches shoot forth its Flowers, set on Foot-Stalks about three Inches long, consisting of several small narrow greenish Petala, on the Top of an oval Body, which is the Rudiment of the Fruit; at the Bottom of which its Perianthium divides into Four. The Fruit, when full grown, is in Size, Shape and Colour like a small Spanish Olive, containing one hard channell’d Stone. The Grain of the Wood is white, soft and spongy. The Roots are much more so, approaching near to the Consistence of Cork, and are used in Carolina for the same Purposes as Cork, to stop Gourds and Bottles. These Trees always grow in wet Places, and usually in the shallow Parts of Rivers and in Swamps.

Catesby’s handwritten comments on specimen: This is called Water Tupelo or wild olive from the resemblance of it’s fruit to those of olive. It’s an Aquatick and the softest of all the wood that I know of.

Cross reference: H.S. 212 folio 67
H.S. 212 folio 67 Nyssa aquatica L. water tupelo
H.S. 212 folio 67 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_067_0450-corr
N.H. 1.60t
N.H. 1.60

Catesby’s comments: Arbor in aqua nascens, follis latis acuminatis & dentatis, fuctu Elagni majore. The Water-Tupelo. This Tree has a large Trunk, especially near the Ground, and grows very tall. The Leaves are broad, irregularly notched or indented. From the Sides of the Branches shoot forth its Flowers, set on Foot-Stalks about three Inches long, consisting of several small narrow greenish Petala, on the Top of an oval Body, which is the Rudiment of the Fruit; at the Bottom of which its Perianthium divides into Four. The Fruit, when full grown, is in Size, Shape and Colour like a small Spanish Olive, containing one hard channell’d Stone. The Grain of the Wood is white, soft and spongy. The Roots are much more so, approaching near to the Consistence of Cork, and are used in Carolina for the same Purposes as Cork, to stop Gourds and Bottles. These Trees always grow in wet Places, and usually in the shallow Parts of Rivers and in Swamps.

Catesby’s handwritten comments on specimen: It usually grows in or very near the water. It produces clusters of purplish colour’d berries of the shape of Spanish olives but somewhat less which are greedily eat by Bears. The lower part of the Tree which is usually in the water is almost as light and spongy as Cork and oft put to the same use.

Cross reference: H.S. 232 folio 52
H.S. 212 folio 77 Nyssa sylvatica L. water tupelo
H.S. 212 folio 77 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_077_0425-corr
N.H. 1.41t
N.H. 1.41

Catesby’s comments: Arbor in aqua nascens, foliis latis acuminatis & non dentatis fructu Eleagno minore. The Tupelo Tree. This Tree usually grows large and spreading, with an erect Trunc and regular Head. The Leaves are shaped like those of the Bay-Tree. In Autumn its Branches are thick, set with oval black Berries on long Foot-stalks, each Berry having a hard channel’d flattish Stone. These Berries have a very sharp and bitter Taste, yet are Food for many wild Animals, particularly Raccoons, Opossums, Bears, etc. The Grain of the Wood is curled and very tough, and therefore very proper for Nave of Cart-wheels and other Country-Uses. They grow usually in moist Places in Virginia, Maryland, and Carolina.

H.S. 212 folio 22 Osmanthus americanus (L.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex A. Gray devilwood
H.S. 212 folio 22 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_022_0484-corr
N.H. 1.61t
N.H. 1.61

Catesby’s comments: Ligustrum Lauri folio, fuctu violaceo. The Purple-Berried Bay. This Tree grows usually sixteen Feet high, and the Trunc is from six to eight Inches in Diameter. The Leaves are very smooth, and of a brighter Green than the common Bay-Tree: Otherwise, in Shape and Manner of growing, it resembles it. In March, from between the Leaves, shoot forth Spikes, two or three Inches in Length, consisting of tetrapetalous very small white Flowers, growing opposite to each other, on Foot-stalks half an Inch long. The Fruit, which succeeds, are globular Berries, about the Size of Those of the Bay, and cover’d with a Purple-colour’d Skin, enclosing a Kernel, which divides in the Middle.

Catesby’s handwritten comments on specimen: There succeeds the blossoms of this evergreen Tree clusters of purple berries. It grows by rivers sides particularly on some branches of Ashley River.

H.S. 212 folio 66 Oxydendrum arboreum (L.) DC. sourwood
H.S. 212 folio 66 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_066_0440-corr
N.H. 1.71t
N.H. 1.71

Catesby’s comments: Frutex foliis oblongis acuminatis, floribus spicatis unoversu dispositis. The Sorrel-Tree. The Trunc of this Tree is usually five or six Inches thick, and rises to the Height of about twenty Feet, with slender Branches thick set with Leaves, shaped like those of the Pear-Tree. From the Ends of the Branches proceed little white monopetalous Flowers, like those of the Strawberr-Tree, which are thick set on short Footstalks to one Side of many slender Stalks, which are pendant on the Side of the main Branch.

Catesby’s handwritten comments on specimen: Sorel Tree. Never grows to be large. The leaf is as sharp and tastes much like Sorrel. It is in great esteem here for fevers and other Malady’s.

Cross reference: H.S. 232 folio 57
H.S. 232 folio 57 Oxydendrum arboreum (L.) A.P. de Candolle Sourwood, Sorrel-tree
H.S. 232 folio 57 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS232_057_0599-corr
N.H. 1.71t
N.H. 1.71

Catesby’s comments: Frutex foliis oblongis acuminatis, floribus spicatis unoversu dispositis. The Sorrel-Tree. The Trunc of this Tree is usually five or six Inches thick, and rises to the Height of about twenty Feet, with slender Branches thick set with Leaves, shaped like those of the Pear-Tree. From the Ends of the Branches proceed little white monopetalous Flowers, like those of the Strawberr-Tree, which are thick set on short Footstalks to one Side of many slender Stalks, which are pendant on the Side of the main Branch.

Catesby’s handwritten comments on specimen: Sorel tree. So called from the sharp taste of its leaf. A small tree.

Cross reference: H.S. 212 folio 66
H.S. 212 folio 1 Persea palustris (Rafinesque) Sargent Redbay
H.S. 212 folio 1 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_001_0507-corr
N.H. 1.63t
N.H. 1.63

Catesby’s comments: Laurus Carolinensis, foliis acuminatis, baccis caeruleis, pediculis longis rubris insicentibus. The Red Bay. The Leaves of this Tree are in Shape like those of the common Bay, and of an Aromatic Scent. The Berries, when ripe, are blue, growing two, and sometimes three together, on Foot-stalks of two or three Inches long, of a red Colour, as is the Calix or Cup of the Fruit, and indented about the Edges. These Trees are not common in Virginia, except in some Places near the Sea. In Carolina they are every where seen, particularly in low swampy Lands. In general, they arrive to the Size of but small Trees and Shrubs; tho’ in some Islands, and particular Places near the Sea, they grow to large and strait bodied Trees. The Wood is fine-grain’d, and of excellent Use for Cabinets, etc. I have seen some of the best of this Wood selected, that has resembled Water’d Sattin; and has exceeded in Beauty any other Kind of Wood I ever saw.

Notes: Catesby plate 63 and his description make it clear that he is describing Persea palustris, not Persea borbonia. Everywhere in swampy land in the description and the long peduncles in the watercolor all indicate conclusively that this is Persea palustris. Folio 50 in HS 232 is Persea borbonia sensu stricto.

Cross reference: H.S. 232 folio 50
H.S. 212 folio 16 Philadelphus inodorus L. Appalachian mock orange
H.S. 212 folio 16 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_016_0494-corr
N.H. 2.84t
N.H. 2.84

Catesby’s comments: Philadelphus flore albo majore inodoro. This is a small Tree, rising to the Height of about sixteen Feet or upwards, with a slender Trunc; the Wood hard and brittle, from the larger upright Stalks grow smaller ones horizontally and opposite to one another, on which are placed the Leaves by Pairs, shaped like those of a Pear; At the ends of these smaller Stalks were also placed the Flowers, growing usually two or three together on Footstalks of about an Inch long. These Flowers are composed of four white Petals, adorn’d in the Middle with a Tuft of thrummy Stamina, a Triple Stilus, and crowned with yellow Apices. These Flowers are succeeded by round mucronated Capsulas, containing many small Seeds in Cells divided by thin Membranes. The only Tree of this kind I ever saw, was growing on the Bank of the Savana River near its Cataracts.

H.S. 212 folio 68 Platanus occidentalis L. American sycamore
H.S. 212 folio 68 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_068_0449-corr
N.H. 1.56t
N.H. 1.56

Catesby’s comments: Platanus occidentalis. The Western Plane-Tree. This Tree usually grows very large and tall. Its Leaves are broad, of a light Green, and somewhat downy on the Back-side. Its Seed-Vessels are globular, having single and pendent on Foot-stalks of about four or five inches long; the Fruit in the Texture of it, resembling that of the Platanus Orientalis. The Bark is smooth, and usually so variegated with White and Green that they have a fine Effect amonst the other Trees. In Virginia they are plentifully found, in all the lower Parts of the County; but in Carolina there are but few, except on the hilly Parts, particularly on the Banks of the Savanna River.

H.S. 212 folio 63 Podophyllum peltatum L. mayapple
H.S. 212 folio 63 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_063_0451-corr
N.H. 1.24t
N.H. 1.24

Catesby’s comments: Anapodophyllon Canadense Morini. Turef. Ranuncul facie planta peregrina H.R. Par. Aconitifolia humilis, flore albo, unico campanulato Fructu Cynosbati. Mentz. Tab. 11. Turnes. Inst. p. 239. The May Apple. This Plant grows about a Foot and half high; the Flower consisting of several Petala, with many yellow Stamina surrounding the seed-vessel, which is oval, unicapsular, and contains many roundish Seeds. The Leaves of the Plant resemble the Aconitum lycoctonum luteum C.B. Pin. The Root is said to an excellent Emetic, and is used as such in Carolina; which has given it there the Name of Ipecacuana, the stringy Roots of which it resembles. It flowers in March; the Fruit is ripe in May; which has occasioned it in Virginia to be called May-Apple.

H.S. 212 folio 11 Populus deltoides Bartram ex Marsh. eastern cottonwood
H.S. 212 folio 11 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_011_0500-corr
N.H. 1.34t
N.H. 1.34

Catesby’s comments: Populus nigra folio maximo gemmis Balsamum odoritissimum fundentibus. The Black Poplar of Carolina. This Tree grows only near Rivers, above the inhabited parts of Carolina. They are large and very tall. In April, at which time only I saw them, they had dropt their Seeds; which, by the Remains, I could only perceive to hang in Clusters, with a Cotton-like Consistence covering them. Upon the large swelling Buds of this Trees sticks a very odoriferous Balsam. The leaves are indented about the edges, and very broad, resembling in shape the Black Poplar, described by Parkinson.

Catseby’s handwritten comments on specimen: This I conceive is the black Poplar or a kind of it, especially from it’s producing Catkins and clusters of berries with cotton like matter. The swelling buds which preceeds and contains the blossoms are Glutinous and very fragrant and from which I imagine the Unguentum Populeon is made of.

H.S. 232 folio 52 Populus heterophylla L.
H.S. 232 folio 52 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS232_052_0604-corr
N.H. 1.34t
N.H. 1.34

Catesby’s comments: Populus nigra folio maximo gemmis Balsamum odoritissimum fundentibus. The Black Poplar of Carolina. This Tree grows only near Rivers, above the inhabited parts of Carolina. They are large and very tall. In April, at which time only I saw them, they had dropt their Seeds; which, by the Remains, I could only perceive to hang in Clusters, with a Cotton-like Consistence covering them. Upon the large swelling Buds of this Trees sticks a very odoriferous Balsam. The leaves are indented about the edges, and very broad, resembling in shape the Black Poplar, described by Parkinson.

Catesby’s handwritten comments on specimen: A kind of Aspen (?) producing in opposite bunches of berries full of cotton - In August the Trees are set with large swelling buds which contain the seed in Embrio. These buds are downy and containing a Balsamick substance of a most fragrant perfume.

H.S. 212 folio 66 Ptelea trifoliata L. common hoptree
H.S. 212 folio 66 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_066_0440-corr
N.H. 2.33t
N.H. 2.33
 
N.H.2.83t
N.H.2.83

Catesby’s comments, 2.33: Frutex trifolius resinus; floribus tetra-petalis albis racemosis. This Shrub grows to the Height of about six Feet, producing trifoliated, pointed, stiff, shining Leaves growing opposite to one another on Foot-stalks two Inches long, and at the Ends of the Branches grow four or five slender Stalks set with many very small white Flowers.

Comment on folio page in pencil: “ii.22 Frutex trifolius resinosus, etc. fide index but ii.33 is Amyris elemifera.”

Catesby’s comments, 2.83 (referred by Howard): Frutex Virginianus trifolius, Ulmi samaris Banisteri; Pluk. Alma, 159. These Trees usually grow to the Height of twelve or fifteen Feet with a Trunk as big as one’s Leg, having a pale greenish smooth Bark. Its Leaves are trifoliate, set on long Footstalks. The Flowers grow in spiked Bunches, many of them together, each Flower having four white Petals, and are succeeded by Bunches or Clusters of Seeds. These Trees grow on the upper Parts of the Savannah River in Carolina, and no where that ever I saw in the lower inhabited Parts of the Country.

Catesby’s handwritten comments: The flowers of this Shrub are succeeded by bunches of flat seed vessels of which I sent to Mr. Rand last year.

Cross reference: H.S. 232 folio 53
H.S. 232 folio 53 Ptelea trifoliata L. Hop-tree
H.S. 232 folio 53 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS232_053_0607-corr
N.H. 2.83t
N.H. 2.83

Catesby’s comments: Frutex trifolius resinus; floribus tetra-petalis albis racemosis. This Shrub grows to the Height of about six Feet, producing trifoliated, pointed, stiff, shining Leaves growing opposite to one another on Foot-stalks two Inches long, and at the Ends of the Branches grow four or five slender Stalks set with many very small white Flowers.

Cross reference: H.S. 212 folio 66
H.S. 232 folio 91 Quercus alba L. white oak
H.S. 232 folio 91 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS232_091_0565-corr
N.H. 1.21t
N.H. 1.21

Catesby’s comments: Quercus alba Virginiana, Park. The White Oak. This nearest resembles our common English Oak in the shape of its Leaves, Acorns, and Manner of growing; the Bark is white, the grain of the Wood fine, for which and its durableness it is esteem’d the best Oak in Virginia and Carolina. It grows on all kind of Land; but most on high barren Ground amongst Pine Trees. There is another kind of white Oak, which in Virginia is called the Scaly white Oak, with Leaves like this, the Bark white and scaly, the Wood is of great use in building. They grow on rich Land both high and low.

H.S. 212 folio 78 Quercus incana Bartram bluejack oak
H.S. 212 folio 78 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_078_0433-corr
N.H. 1.22t
N.H. 1.22

Catesby’s comments: Quercus humilior salicis folio breviore. The Highland Willow Oak. This is usually a small Tree, having a dark coloured Bark with Leaves of a pale green, and shaped like those of a Willow. It grows on dry poor land, producing but few Acorns, and those small. Most of these Oaks are growing at Mr. Fairchild’s.

H.S. 212 folio 78 Quercus laevis Walter turkey oak
H.S. 212 folio 78 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_078_0433-corr
N.H. 1.23t
N.H. 1.23

Catesby’s comments: Quercus Esculi divisura foliis amplioribus aculeatis. Pluk. Phytog. Tab. LIV. The Red Oak. The Leaves of this Oak retain no certain form; the sport into variou shapes more than other Oaks do. The Bark is dark colour’d, very thick and strong, and for tanning preferable to any other kind of Oak; the grain is course, the Wood spongy, and not durable. They grow on high Lang: the Acorns vary in shape, as appears by the figures of them; they being from the same kind of Oak.

Cross reference: H.S. 232 folio 88
H.S. 232 folio 88 Quercus laevis Walter turkey oak
H.S. 232 folio 88 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS232_088_0566-corr
N.H. 1.23t
N.H. 1.23

Catesby’s comments: Quercus Esculi divisura foliis amplioribus aculeatis. Pluk. Phytog. Tab. LIV. The Red Oak. The Leaves of this Oak retain no certain form; the sport into variou shapes more than other Oaks do. The Bark is dark colour’d, very thick and strong, and for tanning preferable to any other kind of Oak; the grain is course, the Wood spongy, and not durable. They grow on high Lang: the Acorns vary in shape, as appears by the figures of them; they being from the same kind of Oak.

Cross reference: H.S. 212 folio 78
H.S. 232 folio 93 Quercus marilandica Muenchh. blackjack oak
H.S. 232 folio 93 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS232_093_0567-corr
N.H. 1.19t
N.H. 1.19

Catesby’s comments: Quercus (forte) Marilandica, folia trisido ad sassafras accedente. Raii Hist. The Black Oak. Usually grows on the poorest land, and is small; the colour of the Bark black, the Grain coarse: and the Wood of little use but to burn: Some of these Oaks produces Leaves ten inches wide.

H.S. 212 folio 5 Quercus michauxii Nutt. swamp chestnut oak
H.S. 212 folio 5 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_005_0503-corr
N.H. 1.18
N.H. 1.18

Catesby’s comments: Quercus castaneae foliis, procera arbor virginiana. Pluk. Alma. The Chesnut-Oak. This Oak grows only in low and very good land, and is the tallest and largest of the Oaks in these parts of the World: the Bark white and scaly; the Grain of the Wood not fine, though the Timber is of great use: the Leaves are long, indented round the edges, like those of the Chesnut. None of the other Oaks produce so large Acorns.

Cross reference: H.S. 232 folio 14
H.S. 232 folio 14 Quercus michauxii Nutt.
H.S. 232 folio 14 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS232_014_0642-corr
N.H. 1.18t
N.H. 1.18

Catesby’s comments: Quercus castaneae foliis, procera arbor virginiana. Pluk. Alma. The Chesnut-Oak. This Oak grows only in low and very good land, and is the tallest and largest of the Oaks in these parts of the World: the Bark white and scaly; the Grain of the Wood not fine, though the Timber is of great use: the Leaves are long, indented round the edges, like those of the Chesnut. None of the other Oaks produce so large Acorns.

Cross reference: H.S. 212 folio 5
H.S. 232 folio 96 Quercus nigra L. water oak
H.S. 232 folio 96 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS232_096_0562-corr
N.H. 1.20t
N.H. 1.20

Catesby’s comments: Quercus folio non serrato, in summitate quasi triangulo. The Water Oak. These grow no where but in low waterish lands: the Timber not durable, therefore of little use, except for fencing in fields. In mild winters they retain most of their leaves. Their Acorns are small and bitter, and are rejected by the hogs, while others are to be found.

H.S. 232 folio 98 Quercus phellos L. willow oak
H.S. 232 folio 98 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS232_098_0558-corr
N.H. 1.16t
N.H. 1.16

Catesby’s comments: Quercus, an potius Ilex Marilandica folio longo angusto Salicis. Raii. Hist. The Willow-Oak. This Oak is never found but in low moist land; the Leaves are long, narrow and smooth-edged, in shape like the Willow; the wood is soft and coarse-grained, and of less use than most of the other kinds of Oak. In mild Winters they retain their Leaves in Carolina; but in Virginia they drop.

Cross reference: H.S. 212 folio 77
H.S. 212 folio 77 Quercus phellos L. willow oak
H.S. 212 folio 77 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_077_0425-corr
N.H. 1.16t
N.H. 1.16

Catesby’s comments: Quercus, an potius Ilex Marilandica folio longo angusto Salicis. Raii. Hist. The Willow-Oak. This Oak is never found but in low moist land; the Leaves are long, narrow and smooth-edged, in shape like the Willow; the wood is soft and coarse-grained, and of less use than most of the other kinds of Oak. In mild Winters they retain their Leaves in Carolina; but in Virginia they drop.

Cross reference: H.S. 232 folio 98
H.S. 212 folio 81 Quercus virginiana Mill. live oak
H.S. 212 folio 81 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_081_0424-corr
N.H. 1.17t
N.H. 1.17

Catesby’s comments: Quercus sempervirens foliis oblongis non sinuatis. D. Banister. The Live Oak. The usual Height of the Live Oak is about 40 foot; the Grain of the wood coarse, harder and tougher than any other Oak. Upon the edges of Salt-Marshes (where they usually grow) they arrive to a large size. Their Bodies are irregular, and generally lying along, occasioned by the losseness and moisture of the soil, and tides washing their roots bare. On higher lands they grow erect, with a regular pyramidal-shaped Head, retaining their leaves all the year. The Acorns are the sweetest of all others; of which the Indians usually lay up store, to thicken their venison-soop, and prepare them other ways. They likewise draw an Oil, very pleasant and wholesom, little inferior to that of Almonds.

H.S. 212 folio 21 Sarracenia minor Walter Hooded Pitcherplant
H.S. 212 folio 21 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_021_0485-corr
N.H. 2.69t
N.H. 2.69

Catesby’s comments: Sarracena, foliis longioribus & angustioribus; Bucanephyllon elatius Virginianum, etc. Pluk. Alm. p. 72. T. 152. f. 3. As this and the following Plant exhibit two Plants of the same Genus, and which in many Parts of their Structure agree with the Description of each other, I found it necessary to refer from on to the other to explain some Parts, which are not alike displayed in both Plates, and consequently cannot give so perfect an Idea without such Reference. The Leaves of this Plant are tubelous, and ribbed, arising from a knotty fiberous Root, to the Height of about three Feet; they are small at the Root, widening gradually to the Mouth of the Tube, which in young Leaves are closed, but open by Degrees, as the Leaf increaseth, and when near its full Growth arches over the Mouth of the Gube, in Form of a Fryar’s Cowl, Fig. 1. This Cowl expands itself till the Leaf is at full Bigness, having its Inside of a greenish Yellow, veined with Purple, Fig. 2., yet retaining somwhat the Position it first had, by hanging over the Mouth of the tube, which otherwise would be filled with Rain, and fall by the Weight of Water, it being of a thin Substance, and of a yellowish green Colour; the Flowers, which hang inclining, grow each on a single Foot-stalk, of between two and three Feet high, springing from the Root, in like Manner with the Leaves. While the Flower is in bloom, many small yellow Apices, hanging by Threads, surround the Ovarium, to which is fixed by a Stylus, a pentagonal thin Membrane, in Form of a Shield, hanging horizontally; between the Intercesses of which hang give thin Petals, growing from the Basis of the Ovarium; On the Top is placed the Calyx divided into five Sections, and compleats the whole Flower, which remains not long in this perfect State, for the five Petals, after continuing a Day or two, fall off, leaving the Remains of the Flower, which continue several Months in the State and Form represented in the next Plate, Fig. 3. The Capsula, or Seed Vessel incloses a Core, from which it separates when the Seeds are ripe, and divides into five Parts, each of which is again divided by a thin Membrane, by which ten Cells are formed, in which the Seeds like: Fig. 4. shews the under Part of the Flower, as it appears when spread open, with the Shield reflected, resembling somewhat the Seat of a Side-Saddle, from which in Virginia it has received its Name of Side-Saddle Flower. These Plants grow in Bogs and watey Places in Carolina, Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania.

H.S. 212 folio 20 Sarracenia rubra Walter sweet pitcherplant
H.S. 212 folio 20 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_020_0490-corr
N.H. 2.69t
N.H. 2.69

Catesby’s comments: Sarracena, foliis longioribus & angustioribus; Bucanephyllon elatius Virginianum, etc. Pluk. Alm. p. 72. T. 152. f. 3. As this and the following Plant exhibit two Plants of the same Genus, and which in many Parts of their Structure agree with the Description of each other, I found it necessary to refer from on to the other to explain some Parts, which are not alike displayed in both Plates, and consequently cannot give so perfect an Idea without such Reference. The Leaves of this Plant are tubelous, and ribbed, arising from a knotty fiberous Root, to the Height of about three Feet; they are small at the Root, widening gradually to the Mouth of the Tube, which in young Leaves are closed, but open by Degrees, as the Leaf increaseth, and when near its full Growth arches over the Mouth of the Gube, in Form of a Fryar’s Cowl, Fig. 1. This Cowl expands itself till the Leaf is at full Bigness, having its Inside of a greenish Yellow, veined with Purple, Fig. 2., yet retaining somwhat the Position it first had, by hanging over the Mouth of the tube, which otherwise would be filled with Rain, and fall by the Weight of Water, it being of a thin Substance, and of a yellowish green Colour; the Flowers, which hang inclining, grow each on a single Foot-stalk, of between two and three Feet high, springing from the Root, in like Manner with the Leaves. While the Flower is in bloom, many small yellow Apices, hanging by Threads, surround the Ovarium, to which is fixed by a Stylus, a pentagonal thin Membrane, in Form of a Shield, hanging horizontally; between the Intercesses of which hang give thin Petals, growing from the Basis of the Ovarium; On the Top is placed the Calyx divided into five Sections, and compleats the whole Flower, which remains not long in this perfect State, for the five Petals, after continuing a Day or two, fall off, leaving the Remains of the Flower, which continue several Months in the State and Form represented in the next Plate, Fig. 3. The Capsula, or Seed Vessel incloses a Core, from which it separates when the Seeds are ripe, and divides into five Parts, each of which is again divided by a thin Membrane, by which ten Cells are formed, in which the Seeds like: Fig. 4. shews the under Part of the Flower, as it appears when spread open, with the Shield reflected, resembling somewhat the Seat of a Side-Saddle, from which in Virginia it has received its Name of Side-Saddle Flower. These Plants grow in Bogs and watey Places in Carolina, Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania.

H.S. 212 folio 18 Silene virginica L. fire pink
H.S. 212 folio 18 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_018_0492-corr
N.H. 2.54t
N.H. 2.54

Catesby’s comments: Lychnis viscosa, Virginiana, flore amplo coccineo: seu Muscipula Regia. D. Banister Phytogr. Tab. 203. Fig. 1. The Height of this Plant is usually about a Foot, rising with several Stems, which divide into smaller Stalks, on which grow the Flowers on Footstalks half an Inch long: The Flower is red, tubulous, consisting of five Petals, with a deep Notch at the End of each, besides an angular Point on each Side; The Leaves grow opposite to one another without Footstalks. They are frequently found in the sandy Woods near Charlestown in Carolina.

H.S. 212 folio 33 Spigelia marilandica (L.) L. pinkroot
H.S. 212 folio 33 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_033_0472-corr
N.H. 2.78t
N.H. 2.78

Catesby’s comments: Gentiana forte? quae Perclymeni Virginiani flore coccineo, Planta Marilandica spicata erecta, foliis conjugatis. D. Sherard R. Hist. II. Dendr. 3 N. The Indian Pink. This Plant rises usually with four or five Stalks, of about twelve or fourteen Inches in Height, every one of which has three or four Pair of sharp-pointed Leaves, set opposite to each other. On the Top of the Stalks on one Side, are placed about ten or twelve monopetalous, tubelous, red Flowers: The Flower divides at Top into five Sections, the Inside of which is yellow; from the middle of the Flower arose a long yellow Stylus, with Stamina. This Plant was in Blossom, the First of August 1738, in the Garden of Mr. Christ. Gray at Fulham, and endures the Winter without any Protection. A Decoction made of this Plant is good against Worms.

H.S. 232 folio 69 Taxodium ascendens Brongn. pond cypress
H.S. 232 folio 69 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS232_069_0588-corr
N.H. 1.11t
N.H. 1.11

Catesby’s comments: The Cypress of America. The Cypress (except the Tulip-tree) is the tallest and largest in these parts of the world. Near the ground some of ’em measure 30 foot in circumference, rising pyramidally six foot, where it is about two thirds less; from which to the limbs, which is usually 60 or 70 foot, it grows in like proportion of other trees. Four or five foot round this Tree (in a singular manner) rise many Stumps, some a little above ground, and others from one to four foot high, of various shape and size, their tops round, cover’d with a smooth red Bark. These Stumps shoot from the roots of the Tree, yet they produce neither Leaf nor Branch, the Tree increasing only by seed, which in form are like the common Cypress, and contain a balsamic consistence of a fragrant smell. The Timber this Tree affors, is excellent, and particularly for covering Houses with, it being light, of a free Grain, and resisting the Injuries of the weather better than any other here. It is an Aquatic, and usually grows from one, five and six foot deep in water; which secure situation seems to invite a great number of different Birds to breed in its lofty branches; amongst which this Parrot delights to make its Nest, and in October (at which time the Seed is ripe) to feed on their Kernels.

H.S. 232 folio 85 Taxodium ascendens Brongn. pond cypress
H.S. 232 folio 85 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS232_085_0578-corr
N.H. 1.11t
N.H. 1.11

Catesby’s comments: The Cypress of America. The Cypress (except the Tulip-tree) is the tallest and largest in these parts of the world. Near the ground some of ’em measure 30 foot in circumference, rising pyramidally six foot, where it is about two thirds less; from which to the limbs, which is usually 60 or 70 foot, it grows in like proportion of other trees. Four or five foot round this Tree (in a singular manner) rise many Stumps, some a little above ground, and others from one to four foot high, of various shape and size, their tops round, cover’d with a smooth red Bark. These Stumps shoot from the roots of the Tree, yet they produce neither Leaf nor Branch, the Tree increasing only by seed, which in form are like the common Cypress, and contain a balsamic consistence of a fragrant smell. The Timber this Tree affors, is excellent, and particularly for covering Houses with, it being light, of a free Grain, and resisting the Injuries of the weather better than any other here. It is an Aquatic, and usually grows from one, five and six foot deep in water; which secure situation seems to invite a great number of different Birds to breed in its lofty branches; amongst which this Parrot delights to make its Nest, and in October (at which time the Seed is ripe) to feed on their Kernels.

Cross reference: H.S. 212 folio 4 , H.S. 232 folio 69
H.S. 212 folio 4 Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich. Bald Cypress
H.S. 212 folio 4 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_004_0501-corr
N.H. 1.11t
N.H. 1.11

Catesby’s comments: The Cypress of America. The Cypress (except the Tulip-tree) is the tallest and largest in these parts of the world. Near the ground some of ’em measure 30 foot in circumference, rising pyramidally six foot, where it is about two thirds less; from which to the limbs, which is usually 60 or 70 foot, it grows in like proportion of other trees. Four or five foot round this Tree (in a singular manner) rise many Stumps, some a little above ground, and others from one to four foot high, of various shape and size, their tops round, cover’d with a smooth red Bark. These Stumps shoot from the roots of the Tree, yet they produce neither Leaf nor Branch, the Tree increasing only by seed, which in form are like the common Cypress, and contain a balsamic consistence of a fragrant smell. The Timber this Tree affors, is excellent, and particularly for covering Houses with, it being light, of a free Grain, and resisting the Injuries of the weather better than any other here. It is an Aquatic, and usually grows from one, five and six foot deep in water; which secure situation seems to invite a great number of different Birds to breed in its lofty branches; amongst which this Parrot delights to make its Nest, and in October (at which time the Seed is ripe) to feed on their Kernels.

H.S. 212 folio 59 Trillium catesbaei Elliott bashful wakerobin
H.S. 212 folio 59 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_059_0446
N.H. 1.45t
N.H. 1.45

Catesby’s comments: Solanum triphylion flore hexapetalo carneo. This has a tuberous Root; from which shoots forth two or three streight Stalks, of about eight Inches high; on which are set triangularly three ribbed Leaves; from between which proceeds its Flower, of a pale Red, composed of six spreading Leaves, three large and three smaller, with Stamina of unequal Lengths. The Flower is succeeded by its Seed-Vessel, in Form and Size of a small Hazel-Nut, but somewhat channell’d, and cover’d by a Perianthium, which divides in Three, and turns back. The Capsula contains innumerable small Seeds, like Dust. This Plant I found at the Sources of great Rivers; not having seen any in the inhabited Parts of Carolina.

H.S. 212 folio 59 Trillium maculatum Raf. spotted wakerobin
H.S. 212 folio 59 urn:cite:fufolioimg:BotCarCatesbyHS.Catesby_HS212_059_0446
N.H. 1.50t
N.H. 1.50

Catesby’s comments: Solanum triphyllon flore hexapetalo tribus petalis purpureis erectis caeteris viridibus reflexis. Pluk. Phytog. Tab. 111. This Plant rises with a single streight Stalk, five or six Inches high; from the Top of which, spreads forth three broad pointed Leaves, placed triangularly, and hanging down. These Leaves have each three Ribs, and are variegated with dark and lighter Green. From between these Leaves shoots forth the Flower, consisting of three purple Petals growing erect, having its Perianthium divided in Three. They grow in shady Thickets in most Parts of Carolina.